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Networking Interview Questions and Answers

In this article we have gathered the latest and most asked Networking interview questions and answers for both freshers and experienced. Networking is a crucial aspect of modern technology, enabling devices and users to communicate and share resources across the internet and other networks. If you’re preparing for a job interview in the networking field, it’s important to have a solid understanding of networking concepts and technologies. Whether you’re a seasoned networking professional or just starting out, this guide will provide valuable insights into the world of networking and help you succeed in your job search.

Networking, also known as Computer Networking, is a system in which multiple computers are connected to each other to share information and resources.

Networking Interview Questions and Answers

These Networking interview questions will help job seekers to prepare well for the job interview and cross the panel discussion easily.

So let’s get started :

1. What is the network?
2. What is a Link?
3. What are the different types of networks?
4. What is a node?
5. What are the different types of network cables used in networking?
6. What is a gateway? Is there any difference between a gateway and router?
7. What is a subnet?
8. What is DNS?
9. What is Network Topology?
10. What is NIC?
11. What is a MAC address?
12. What is an IP address?
13. What is private IP address?
14. What is public IP address?
15. What is APIPA?
16. What is the meaning of 10Base-T?
17. Explain OSI Reference Model.
18. What is TCP/IP model?
19. Mention any five applications that use TCP port.
20. Explain the DHCP Protocol.

1. What is the network?

A network is a group of devices that are connected by a physical media link. In a network, two or more nodes are connected by a physical link or two or more networks are connected by one or more nodes.
Networks can be classified according to different criteria such as scope, type of connection, functional relationship, topology, or function, among others.


A link refers to the connectivity between two devices which includes the types of cables and protocols used to allow one device to communicate with another.


3. What are the different types of networks?

The Networks can be divided on the basis of area of distribution. For example:

  • PAN (Personal Area Network): Its range limit is up to 10 meters. It is designed for personal use. Normally, individual devices are connected to this network. For example computer, telephone, fax, printer etc.
  • LAN (Local Area Network): LAN is a network whose range is limited to a relatively small area, such as a room, a building, an airplane, etc.
  • CAN (Campus Area Network): This is a connection of devices within a campus area that connects to other departments of the organization within the same campus.
  • MAN (Metropolitan Area Network): MAN is a high-speed (broadband) network that provides coverage over a larger geographic area than a campus. It is used to connect the devices which span to large cities like metropolitan cities.
  • WAN (Wide Area Network): It is used over a wide geographical location which can be to connect cities and countries using unusual means of communication, such as satellites, inter-oceanic cables, fibre optics, etc.
  • GAN (Global Area Network): It uses satellites to connect devices on a global scale.
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4. What is a node?

A node is a connection point on the network for data transmission. It can be a computer or printer or any type of device that is capable of sending and receiving data over a network.


5. What are the different types of network cables used in networking?

Some of the different types of cables used in networks are:

  • Unshielded Twisted Pair (UTP) Cable
  • Shielded Twisted Pair (STP) Cable
  • Coaxial Cable
  • Fibre Optic Cable

6. What is a gateway? Is there any difference between a gateway and router?

A node that is connected to two or more networks is commonly known as a gateway. It is also known as router. It is used to forward messages from one network to another. Both the gateway and the router regulate the traffic in the network.

The only difference between router and gateway is that router sends data between two similar networks whereas gateway sends data between two different networks.


7. What is a subnet?

A Subnet is a general term for a segment of a wider network, usually separated by a bridge or router. It also works for the broadcast domain of the network, manages the traffic flow, and helps to increase the performance of the network.


8. What is DNS?

DNS stands for Domain Name System, It is a naming system for all resources on the Internet including physical nodes and applications. It is used to easily locate the resource on a network. DNS is an internet which maps the domain names to their associated IP addresses.


9. What is Network Topology?

Network topology specifies the layout of a computer network. It shows how devices and cables are connected to each other. The types of topologies are:

Bus Topology: Bus topology is a network topology in which all the nodes are connected to a single cable known as a central cable or bus. Bus topology is useful for a small number of devices. If the bus is damaged then the whole network fails.

Star Topology: In the star network topology, there is a central computer or server to which all workstations are directly connected. Each workstation is indirectly connected to the other through the central computer.

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Ring Topology: Ring topology is a network topology in which nodes are exactly connected to two or more nodes and thus, forming a single continuous path for the transmission.

Mesh Topology: Mesh topology is a network topology in which all the nodes are individually connected to other nodes. Mesh network topology has two forms Fully Connected Mesh Topology and Partially Connected Mesh Topology.

Tree Topology: Tree topology is a combination of star and bus topology. It is also known as the expanded star topology. The central computers in star networks are connected to the main bus. Thus, a tree network is a bus network of star networks.

Hybrid Topology: In the Hybrid Topology nodes are connected in more than one topology styles. It provides flexibility as it can be implemented in a different network environment.


10. What is NIC?

NIC stands for Network Interface Card. It is a peripheral card attached to the PC to connect to a network. Every NIC has its own MAC address that identifies the PC on the network. It is mainly used in desktop computers.


11. What is a MAC address?

MAC (Media Access Control) address is the unique 48-bit hardware address of a LAN card, usually stored in the ROM of the network adapter card. It is a unique address means no two devices can have same MAC addresses.


12. What is an IP address?

An Internet Protocol address (IP address) is a numerical unique address of a device in a network. It is a unique 32 bit software address of a computer in a network system.


13. What is private IP address?

A private IP address is a set of numbers that are assigned to each computer or system, connected to a private network. An example of a private IP address is your mobile phone or your home router which have a default local address.


14. What is public IP address?

Public IP addresses are global addresses, visible to anyone browsing the Internet. A user just needs an internet connection to connect to such devices.


15. What is APIPA?

APIPA is an acronym stands for Automatic Private IP Addressing. This feature is generally found in Microsoft operating system.


16. What is the meaning of 10Base-T?

10Base-T is used to specify the data transfer rate. In 10Base-T, 10 specifies the data transfer rate, i.e. 10 Mbps. The term base designates baseband as opposed to broadband. T specifies the type of cable which is a twisted pair.


17. Explain OSI Reference Model.

OSI reference model is an ISO standard which defines a networking framework for implementing the protocols in seven layers. It is one of the most commonly asked networking interview questions. OSI Model describes the way application interacts with each other over a network.

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Physical Layer: It is the lowest layer of the OSI reference model. It transmits raw unstructured data bits over a communication channel. The physical layer is mainly used for the physical connection between the devices, and such physical connection can be made by using twisted-pair cable, fibre-optic or wireless transmission media

DataLink Layer: At this layer, directly connected nodes perform node-to-node data transfer where the data is packed into frames. It receives the data from the network layer and converts the data into data frames and then attach the physical address to these frames which are sent to the physical layer.

Network Layer: Network layer converts the logical address into the physical address. The Network layer is responsible for transmitting data from one host to the other located in different networks. It also takes care of packet routing.

Transport Layer: The transport layer is responsible for managing the delivery and error-checking of data packets. It delivers the message through the network and provides error checking so that no error occurs during the transfer of data. This ensures end-to-end delivery of the entire message.

Session Layer: The main responsibility of the session layer is to initiate, maintain and end the communication between devices. It is also responsible for authentication and reconnection.

Presentation Layer: Presentation layer is also known as translation layer as it translates data from one format to another. This layer extracts data from the application layer and manipulates it according to the format required to transmit it over the network.

Application Layer: The application layer enables the user to access the network. At the application layer, both the end-user and the application layer interact directly with the software application. It is the topmost layer of the OSI reference model.


18. What is TCP/IP model?

TCP/IP stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol. It is a set of protocol layers designed to exchange data over different types of networks. TCP/IP Model has four layers:

  • Application Layer
  • Transport Layer
  • Internet Layer
  • Network Layer

19. Mention any five applications that use TCP port.

Following are the five applications that uses TCP port:

  • FTP
  • POP
  • SSH
  • SMTP
  • Telnet

20. Explain the DHCP Protocol.

DHCP stands for Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol. It is a standardized network protocol used on Internet Protocol (IP) networks. DHCP servers automatically assign IP addresses to network devices which minimizes errors caused by manual allocation of IP addresses.


We hope these Networking Interview Questions help you in cracking your next Computer Hardware and Networking Interview.

All The Best!

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